Adult sex friend

At the most recent interview in 2008, ∼12,000 Add Health participants provided DNA for genotyping and genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were assayed.We linked these genetic data with social network information from the original school-based surveys along with information about personal characteristics and social environments accumulated across Add Health follow-up waves.We considered the genetics of three phenotypes: height, body mass index (BMI) (a measure of adiposity), and educational attainment.We used polygenic scores to summarize phenotype-related genetics.Adolescence is a critical developmental period in which patterns of health behaviors and overall mental health established during this phase continue through the life course (16) and may affect socioeconomic attainment (17, 18).Moreover, it is also a time of heightened salience for peer networks and influence (19–22).

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Our second analysis tested whether friends were more similar to one another on specific phenotype-related genetic dimensions.We also observe apparent social–genetic effects in which polygenic scores of an individual’s friends and schoolmates predict the individual’s own educational attainment.In contrast, an individual’s height is unassociated with the height genetics of peers.For these reasons, in the present study, we characterize genetic homophily within adolescent social networks in the United States.Specifically, we analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) (23).In step 3, we evaluate a potential implication of genetic similarity among friends: social–genetic effects, or the association between the genotypes of one’s social peers and one’s own phenotype (net of own genotype).We tested whether friends were more genetically similar to one another compared with random pairs of individuals.Analyses focus on a group of genetically homogeneous respondents identified as being of ancestral European origin (. In step 1, we test whether friends are more genetically similar to one another than to randomly selected peers.In step 2, we ask about the role of school assignment in observed genetic similarity among friends.We extend this work by using data from 5,500 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine genetic similarities among pairs of friends.Although there is some evidence that friends have correlated genotypes, both at the whole-genome level as well as at trait-associated loci (via polygenic scores), further analysis suggests that meso-level forces, such as school assignment, are a principal source of genetic similarity between friends.

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